Lakeview Blog

TBI Prevention - Choosing the Right Helmet to Minimize Risk for Brain Injury

Where can I find specific information about which helmet to use?

Look at the information in the columns of the table below:

1. Select your activity of interest in the first column.

2. Read across the row to find the appropriate helmet type for that activity listed in the second column.

3. Once you’ve found the right helmet, look for a label or applicable standard


 Helmet Type

 Applicable Standard(s)

Individual Activities — Wheeled

Bicycling (including low speed, motor assisted) Roller & In-line Skating


Scooter Riding (including low speed, motor assisted)


CPSC, ASTM F1447, Snell B-90/95, Snell N-94†

BMX Cycling



Downhill Mountain Bike Racing



Roller & In-line Skating



Skateboard ASTM F1492†, Snell N-94†

Individual Activities — Wheeled Large Motor

ATV Riding

Dirt- & Mini-Bike Riding


Motocross or


DOT FMVSS 218, Snell M-2005


Karting or Motorcycle

DOT FMVSS 218, Snell K-98, Snell M-2005

Moped Riding

Powered Scooter Riding

Moped or Motorcycle DOT FMVSS 218, Snell L-98, Snell M-2005

Individual Activities — Non-Wheeled

Horseback Riding


ASTM F1163, Snell E-2001

Rock- & Wall-Climbing


EN 12492†, Snell N-94†

Team Sport Activities ‡

Baseball, Softball & T-Ball

Baseball Batter’s


Baseball Catcher’s





Ice Hockey






Winter Activities



 Ski  ASTM F2040, CEN 1077, Snell RS-98 or S-98



DOT FMVSS 218, Snell M-2000

Although a helmet has not yet been designed for the following two activities, until such helmets exist, wearing one of the three listed types of helmets may be preferable to wearing no helmet at all.

Ice Skating



CPSC, ASTM F1447, Snell B-90/95 or N-94†


ASTM F1492†, Snell N-94†


ASTM F2040, CEN 1077, Snell RS-98 or S-98


U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)

t or (800) 638-2772

† This helmet is designed to withstand more than one moderate impact, but protection is provided for only a limited number of impacts. Replace if visibly damaged (e.g., a cracked shell or crushed liner) and/or when directed by the manufacturer.

‡ Team sport helmets are designed to protect against multiple head impacts typically occurring in the sport (e.g., ball, puck, or stick impacts; player contact; etc.), and, generally, can continue to be used after such impacts. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for replacement or reconditioning.

Definitions: ASTM - ASTM International; CEN - European Committee for Standardization; DOT – Dept. of Transportation; EN - Euro-norm or European Standard; NOCSAE - National Operating Committee on Standards in Athletic Equipment; Snell - Snell Memorial Foundation.

The federal CPSC Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets is mandatory for those helmets indicated by 

Women and Brain Injury: A Sizable Minority

The Brain injury Association of Connecticut's Annual Conference on March 11, 2011 (Rocky Hill, CT) features Lakeview's Dr. Tina Trudel presenting on women's issues in TBI (  The factors unique to women’s injuries and outcomes have remained largely overlooked. This presentation will address the prevalence and epidemiology of TBI in women, and the specific differences that women typically experience in the recovery process. Additional topics will include domestic violence and TBI, sexuality, emotional dysregulation, primary role alteration, employment, physical disabilities, long term health concerns, and women as care providers.

Join Lakeview at the Brain Injury Association of Iowa Conference, March 10-11, 2011

Meet Lakeview's expert professional staff at the BIA of Iowa conference in Des Moines, March 10-11.  Featured Lakeview speakers include:
 - Dr. Michael Mozzoni, BCBA-D on Behavioral Interventions for Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury;
 - Dr. Amanda Messina and Mahin Para-cremer, MEd, BCABA on Using Neuropsychological Evaluations to Develop Intervention Strategies; and
 - A keynote address by Dr. Tina Trudel on Sexuality after TBI
Visit us at the Lakeview booth in the exhibit area.  For more information:

Learn About Neuropsychology and Intervention Strategies at BIA of Iowa Conference

Lakeview’s Dr. Amanda Messina and Behavior Analyst Mahin Para-Cremer, MEd, BCABA, will be presenting on, “Using a Neuropsychological Evaluation to Develop Effective Individualized Intervention Strategies to Intervene with Children and Adults with Traumatic or Acquired Brain Injury” at the BIA of Iowa Conference held March 10-11, 2011 at the Sheraton, West Des Moines, IA -  A neuropsychological Evaluation can provide extensive information about how an individual’s functioning has been impacted following a TBI/ABI.  There are many different areas that are potentially assessed during this brain-behavior evaluation process, and the resulting information is a valuable tool in the identification of effective strategies for intervention and treatment.  This presentation will review the components of neuropsychological evaluation and identify the process for developing effective individualized intervention strategies based on the assessment results.    Dr. Amanda Messina is the Director of Child and Youth Services for Lakeview Specialty Hospital and Rehab in Waterford, Wisconsin.  She completed her degree in clinical psychology and is presently completing her post-doctoral residency.  She has extensive experience providing assessments, clinical treatment, and psychotherapy to children and adults with disabilities, including Brain Injury, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Learning Disorders, and Mental Health Diagnoses.    Mahin Para-Cremer has worked with parents, families, teachers, service providers, and advocates to improve the quality of life for children and adults with Traumatic and Acquired Brain Injuries, as well as other disabilities.   Mahin is a Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst and Clinical Liaison for Lakeview Specialty Hospital and Rehab in Waterford, Wisconsin.  She holds a Masters degree in Special Education and Bachelors degrees in Psychology and Human Development from the University of Kansas. 

3rd Interagency Conference on TBI Defense and Veterans Symposium

The 3rd Federal Interagency Conference on Traumatic Brain Injury will be held June 13-15, 2011, at the Washington Hilton -  This premier conference in the field of brain injury rehabilitation was last held in 2006.  Accepted symposia include a presentation by the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center entitled, "Traumatic Brain Injury Screening And Outcomes Along The Post-Deployment Continuum Of Care".  This symposium will review research findings of TBI screening over time and across the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) network of Veteran's Administration (VA), Department of Defense (DoD), and civilian sites.  The symposium was organized by Sean Manion, PhD, Deputy Chief of Staff for DVBIC, and Felicia Qashu, PhD, Scientific Research Advisor for DVBIC.  Expert presenters for this symposium include Wendy Law, PhD speaking on “TBI in the U.S. Military during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) 2003-2005”; Louis M. French, PsyD, speaking on the “Influence of Bodily Injuries on Symptom Reporting Following Uncomplicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury”; Michelle Nichols, RN, speaking on "Traumatic Brain Injury During Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Influences on the Polytrauma Rehabilitation Program within a Veterans Health Administration Facility"; and Lakeview’s Tina M. Trudel, PhD speaking on "Innovations in Community Integrated Brain Injury Vocational Rehabilitation for Service Members:  The DVBIC Charlottesville Experience".  Dr. Trudel will discuss community integrated rehabilitation and vocational services at the DVBIC Charlottesville civilian facility, and the outcomes for service members who have sustained brain injuries and were served through that program where she serves as Research Coordinator/Senior Scientist and was Site Director from 2005-2010.  This DVBIC symposium will allow for a broad look at the TBI care continuum , course of recovery and spectrum of treatment facilities, which will contribute to the advancement, understanding and improvement of outcomes for service members who have sustained a TBI.     

Lakeview Rehab at Home Launched to Provide Specialized Home Health Services

Under the direction of long-time brain injury leader Eldon Munson and Lakeview's Vice-President of Development Sue Bartlett, Lakeview Rehab at Home was officially licensed and launched in NH.  This dynamic new service will provide for expert professional services and support staff in the participants home-based and community settings.  The entire array of rehabilitation and behavioral professionals is available, along with custom care planning and competitive pricing for insurers and workers compensation case managers.  While specializing in brain injury, the expertise and services offered may benefit anyone with a rehabilitation need, neurologic condition or developmental challenge, including youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders.  Future plans include expanding this service throughout New England (MA and ME are already under way), the Mid-Atlantic region (NJ, NY, PA) and the upper Midwest (IA, IL, WI) in 2011.

Lakeview's Dr. Michael Mozzoni Honored for Service to ACRM Brain Injury Group

Dr. Mike Mozzoni was honored by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine, Brain Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group, at their annual conference meeting in montreal, Canada.  Aside from his involvement with and leadership of multiple brain injury task forces, Dr. Mozzoni was specifically cited for his years of work as the group's treasurer.  Dr. Mozzoni is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst and is Lakeview's Director of Behavioral Services and Training, which includes oversight of Lakeview's applied behavior analysis training program serving interns from across the country.

Dr. Tina Trudel addresses 1st World Congress on Neurotechnology in Rome

Speaking on the applications of neurotechnology in brain injury rehabilitation at the World Congress of Neurotechnology in Rome, Lakeview's Chief Operating Officer, Dr. Tina Trudel, noted the advances in use of assistive technology across the general population, as well as among those recovering from brain injury.  PDAs, GPS units, organizers and countless memory devices have been used as rehabilitation tools, including through clinical projects she coordinated at the DVBIC (Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center)site in Charlottesville, serving veterans with brain injury.  She also highlighted a pilot project for post-TBI driving simulation involving veterans and her colleagues at the University of Virginia.  Dr. Trudel emphasized the importance of matching the person's needs and goals appropriately to optimize use of technology, citing the influential work of Dr. Marcia Scherer.  The lecture concluded with an overview of the new research and clinical applications of computerized instructional technology which were piloted at Lakeview and the Bedford, MA VA program, which are now being advanced under her direction through the DVBIC Charlottesville program.  This project inolves collaboration with Instructional Systems Incorporated (ISI), a well known educational and workforce development software company headed up by CEO Martin Kaminer.

Polytrauma Center Care and the TBI Patient: How Seamless is the Transition between VA and DoD and Are Needs Being Met?

Congressional Testimony   “Polytrauma Center Care and the TBI Patient: How Seamless is the Transition between VA and DoD and Are Needs Being Met? ”   Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Veterans’ Affairs   Chair Rep. Michael Michaud   Thursday, March 15, 2007, 2:00 pm   Written Testimony   Tina M. Trudel, PhD President and Chief Operating Officer, Lakeview Healthcare System, Inc. Principal Investigator, Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center at Virginia NeuroCare Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, UVA Medical School Former Chairperson, NH Brain & Spinal Cord Injury Advisory Council Chairperson, Long Term Issues Task Force, American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine     Representative Michaud, members and staffers of the Congressional Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Veterans Affairs, thank you for allowing me the opportunity to participate in this briefing to discuss the care of veterans with brain injury.  My name is Dr. Tina Trudel.  I presently serve as President and Chief Operating Officer of Lakeview Healthcare Systems, a national provider of brain injury services from hospital to home.  I also serve as Principal Investigator of the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center at Virginia Neurocare, a civilian brain injury rehabilitation site.  I have been an advocate, researcher, professor and clinician in the field of brain injury rehabilitation for the past 20 years.   This experience has heightened my awareness of the disconnection between our investment and advances in emergency management and acute care of brain trauma, versus the lack of resources available for post-acute treatment, community integrated rehabilitation and long term supports.  Be it in the civilian or military community, there is a longstanding gap in meeting the long term needs of the growing population of brain injury survivors.  It appears we have yet to accept that saving lives has consequences.   As others in the media have noted, brain injury is perhaps our greatest public health problem.  It cuts across the age span, from infant to elderly, and affects our military both during war and peace time.  Those with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are adversely impacted by the lack of funding and underdeveloped infrastructure in comparison to other diagnostic and disability groups.  Not very long ago, individuals with brain injury often died, and until the National Head Injury Foundation (now Brain Injury Association of America) was founded by in the 1980’s, there was no organized voice of advocacy and acknowledgement.  While this recent era spawned improved survival and the brain injury movement, our national and state health and human services structures were already well-established.  The funding train had left the station, and people with brain injuries were still waiting at the ticket counter.  Brain injury has become a leading public health problem for civilians and the military.  In the United States civilian population, 1.4 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually resulting in 235,000 hospital admissions and 50,000 deaths (1).      Additionally, 80,000 survive with residual long-term impairments.  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that long-term disability as a result of brain injuries (necessitating assistance with activities of daily living) affects 5.3 million Americans, with thousands of new individuals affected every year (2).  This population continues to grow and age, creating greater challenges that must be met by an already burdened health and human services system.   Economically, the total impact of direct and indirect medical and other costs in 1995 dollars is reported to exceed $56 billion (3).  Such costs do not include lost earning potential, family burden of care, special education, vocational retraining and a host of related issues as now are being recognized within the military.  While blast injury and combat related TBI are presently in focus, it is important to remember that military service runs a risk of TBI even in peace time, with thousands of military personnel injured annually due to motor vehicle crashes, falls, training mishaps and other causes.